Eminent Men(women too)

Introducing great men and women in the field of science

There are many eminent scientist who ,in a different way of thinking and experimenting , have changed the pace and settings of the modern day world. Here we  are going to have a brief introduction about these personalities.

Charles Darwin(1809 – 1882)

Author of Origin of species .

charles

It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.
He is most famous for his work on natural selection, the idea that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors. This process involves favorable traits becoming more common in successive generations of living things while at the same time unfavorable traits become less common.Darwin’s ideas created a lot of discussion regarding the impact on various scientific, religious and philosophical viewpoints. Although most of those in educated society accepted the theory of evolution, many still challenge its existence despite the wealth of evidence supporting it.

 

Albert Einstein(1879 – 1955)

The man of Theory of Relativity

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 Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I’m not sure about the universe. – Albert Einstein

He is considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. He was a German born Physicist had a curios mind, He won the Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect and immigrated to the U.S. in the following decade after being targeted by the Nazis.

Marie Curie(1867-1934)

Discoverer of Polonium and Radium

mary

Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.

The first women to win a Nobel Prize and the only person to win for two different fields. She and her husband Pierre were the dedicated scientists and completely dedicated to each other. They used their prize money for the further research.The Radium Institute h she founded to carry out medical research.

Galileo Galilee(1564 – 1642)

Brilliant astronomer

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You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him discover it in himself. – Galileo

Galileo was one of the significant scientists, who made many contributions, in the history of Science. His ideas were always clashed with the  philosophy of Catholic Church and other popular scientific thinkers of that time. He was proved right at the end still he had to face many problems like house arrest and ban for his publications.He was the first person to study the sky with a telescope. He is the man who discovered the first moons ever known to orbit a planet other than Earth. Jupiter’s four largest moons, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, are together known as the Galilean Satellites in his honor.

Isaac Newton (1643 to 1727)

Greatest of Physicist

godfreykneller-isaacnewton-16891

I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.

He produced dramatic transformations in the physical laws we believe our universe obeys, changing the way we understand and relate to the world around us.He spent a lot of time studying mathematics and natural philosophy (today it is physics). He was also very interested in alchemy(now categorized  as a pseudoscience). He dis much of his works in calculus,gravity and optics and the behavior of light. His contribution to mathematics and physics are numerous and prominent. He wrote  Principia, one of the most important scientific books ever written in which he used mathematics to explain gravity and motion. Laws of gravitation and laws of motion are among theother important achievements of Issac Newton.

Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790)

A renaissance man

 

franklin

If you would not be forgotten as soon as you are dead and rotten,either write things worth reading, or do things worth the writing.

Franklin was an original thinker, scientist and inventor.Franklin did not patent what he invented. Franklin was keen in studying electricity.His observations shaped the world’s understanding of electricity.He was the first to state that electric charge cannot be created; it can only be collected. This is a fundamental law of physics – the Law of Conservation of Electric Charge. It means that you cannot create (or destroy) electric charge. In 1751, Franklin published the fruits of his labors in a book called Experiments and Observations on Electricity.His most famous scientific work was  that lightning is electricity.The lightning rod he invented ,we still use.

Alexander Graham Bell( 1847-1922)

The Telephone man

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Great discoveries and improvements invariably involve the cooperation of many minds. I may be given credit for having blazed the trail, but when I look at the subsequent developments I feel the credit is due to others rather than to myself.

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.He developed an overriding desire to invent a machine that could reproduce human speech as speech had a connection with his family : his mother had gone deaf, and his father had developed a method of teaching deaf people to speak. His research into mechanizing human speech had become a relentless obsession. Apart from telephone , he invented photo phone, metal detector and several other things.

Ramanujan(1887-1920))

The man who knew infinity

ramanujan

An equation means nothing to me unless it expresses a thought of God.

He is recognized as one of the greatest mathematicians of his time but he had almost no formal training in mathematics. He has made extra- ordinary contributions in mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions.All these were achieved because of his passion and love to pursue Mathematics.Many of his mathematical discoveries were based on pure intuition – but most of them were later proved to be true. He compiled 3900 results(mostly identities and equations, before he lost his life at the age of 32. His infinite series for pi was one of his most celebrated findings. His birth anniversary, December 22, is celebrated as the National Mathematics Day in India every year.

Salim Ali(1896-1987)

Bird man of India.

Salim-Ali

People expect a bird sanctuary like glorified zoo,they don’t realize that a sanctuary is merely a conserved natural habitatwhere birds will come id assured of adequate food, protection and nesting facilities

Salim Ali, one of the greatest ornithologists and naturalists of all time.He was one of the very first scientists to carry out systematic bird surveys in India and abroad. His research work is considered highly influential in the development of ornithology.He published “The Book of Indian Birds in 1941” in which he discussed the kinds and habits of Indian birds. Salim not only researched about birds, but also contributed to the arena of protection of nature. The Government of India honored him with Padma Vibhushan in 1983.

James Clerk Maxwell(1831 – 1879)

Giant of Physics

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Every existence above a certain rank has its singular points; the higher the rank the more of them. At these points, influences whose physical magnitude is too small to be taken account of by a finite being may produce results of the greatest importance.

“One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell.”Said Einstein.

James Clerk Maxwell is one of the giants of physics.His work  – Maxwell’s Equations – are so hard to understand and that is the reason he became less famous. He discovered that electricity and magnetism are actually, at the deepest level, the same force – the electromagnetic force.Through this  he proved that light is an electromagnetic wave and linked electricity, magnetism and optics.He was the first person ever to produce a color photograph; and he used mathematics to explain Saturn’s rings over 100 years before the Voyager spacecraft confirmed that he was absolutely right.

Stephen Hawking(1942- )

Black hole man

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Look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Try to make sense of what you see, and wonder about what makes the universe exist. Be curious.

Stephen Hawking is known for his groundbreaking work with black holes and relativity. Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. He studied  that Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. This  indicated that it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but rather should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. He is the author of several popular science books including ‘A Brief History of Time.’ Stephen was diagnosed with ALS, a form of Motor Neurone Disease, shortly after his 21st birthday. In spite of this Stephen Hawking continues to combine family life and his research into theoretical physics together with an extensive programme of travel and public lectures. He still hopes to make it into space one day.

Homi J. Bhabha(1909-1966)

The nuclear man of India

Homi J. Bhabha

My success will not depend on what A or B thinks of me. My success will be what I make of my work.

Homi Jahangir Bhabha  was an Indian nuclear physicist and the chief architect of the Indian atomic energy program. He was also responsible for the establishment of two well-known research institutions, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Atomic Energy Establishment at Trombay, which after Bhabha’s death was renamed as the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). As a scientist, he is remembered for deriving a correct expression for the probability of scattering positrons by electrons, a process now known as Bhabha scattering

Nicholaus Copernicus(1473-1543)

Astronomer

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There may be babblers, wholly ignorant of mathematics, who dare to condemn my hypothesis, upon the authority of some part of the Bible twisted to suit their purpose. I value them not, and scorn their unfounded judgment.

Astronomer Nicholaus Copernicus was instrumental in establishing the concept of a heliocentric solar system, in which the sun, rather than the earth, is the center of the solar system.Scholars believe that by around 1508, Copernicus had begun developing his own celestial model, a heliocentric planetary system. During the second century A.D., Ptolemy had invented a geometric planetary model with eccentric circular motions and epicycles . Copernicus’s heliocentric solar system named the sun, rather than the earth, as the center of the solar system. Subsequently, Copernicus believed that the size and speed of each planet’s orbit depended on its distance from the sun. Around 1514, Copernicus completed a written work, Commentariolus  a 40-page manuscript which summarized his heliocentric planetary system and alluded to forthcoming mathematical formulas meant to serve as proof.

Thomas Alva Edison( 1847- 1931)

The Inventor

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The three great essentials to achieve anything worth while are: Hard work, Stick-to-sensitiveness, and Common sense.

Edison created such great innovations as the practical incandescent electric light bulb and the phonograph.He held more than 1,000 patents for his inventionsmajority of them related to electricity and power.His most impressive invention, the phonograph, was patented in 1877. Edison invented the first practical incandescent lamp in 1879.Edison made an amazing discovery in pure science, termed as the Edison Effect.The Edison Company , the company owned by him,created over 1,700 movies.Listless were his inventions

CV Raman(18881970)

Nobel Prize Winner and Bharat Ratna

cv-raman

Success can come to you by a courageous devotion to the task lying in front of you

 C. V. Raman discovered that when light interacts with a molecule the light can donate a small amount of energy to the molecule.The Raman effect is known after him is– a color change accompanied by polarization – had never been seen before. The inelastic scattering at its heart was a further, very strong confirmation, of quantum theory.Today Raman spectroscopy, which relies on these ‘fingerprints,’ is used in laboratories all over the world to identify molecules and to analyze living cells and tissues to detect diseases such as cancer.

 

Stories of Scientists do not end here…

To know about more  please see the link here…..  Famous Scientists

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